• Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

  • Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

  • Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

  • Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

  • Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

  • Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

  • Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

  • Dobro došli na stranicu Judo kluba "Bezbednost" Inđija

Judo vodi poreklo od drevne japanske veštine  Jujutsu-a, sistema  goloruke borbe (borbe prsa u prsa). Obično  se samurajima  pripisuje usavršavanje i razvoj Jujutsu-a  (u njihovo vreme ta veština je bila poznata kao Yoroi kumi-uchi, metod borbe izbliza sa protivnikom u samurajskom oklopu.) Međutim, u japanskim istorijskim dokumentima se pominju javna takmičenja u golorukoj borbi (hikara-kurabe) koja datiraju iz 230 god p.n.e.

Jujutsu je kroz japansku istoriju imao nekoliko naziva:taijutsu, yawara, kempo, kugusoku, kumiuchi, koshinomawan. Ono što je jedinstveno u ovoj veštini jeste da se ne upotrebljava sirova snaga da bi se savladao protivnik, već veština, spretnost, taktičnost i fleksibilnost. Pravilno iskorišćavanje snage, ravnoteže, i gracioznost pokreta su osobine koje krase dobrog  jujutsu borca. Za razliku od zapadnjačkog sistema borbe bez oružja,  od borca jujutsu-a se očekuje da bude mek i elastičan i da pobeđuje naizgled popuštajući ( koristeći snagu protivnika da  bi plasirao svoju tehniku).

U klasičnoj formi, za vreme feudalnog Japana, jujutsu je bio deo samurajske obuke, pored streličarstva, borbe  kopljima, borbe mačevima (kratka i duga katana), veštine jahanja,  taktike  ratovanja i  kodeksa ponašanja. Njegova važnost je narasla sa usponom samurajske klase u nakon Heian perioda (794-1185). Kroz kasnije periode japanske istorije (Kamakura 1185-1336; Muromachi-1336-1573 , sve do Tokugawa perioda 1603-1868)  ova veština se razgranala i specijalizovala, i podučavala se u školama borilačkih veština. Škole su se organizovale na bazi različitih stilova borbe, nastavljajući viziju osnivača.

Škole su se razlikovale po strategiji i taktici. Neke su se specijalizovale za bacanja (nage), druge za borbu na tlu ( osae, shime, kansetsu), a neke za udarce (atemi). Što se tiče strategije, neke škole su davale vrednost preuzimanju inicijative u borbi, dok su druge naglasak su stavljale na pravovremenu reakciju na napad protivnika.Oni koji su sledili principe mačevanja insistirali su na iznenadnom, potpunom napadu. Druge su davale prednost neutralisanju protivnikovog napada kad do njega dodje.

Pošto je Japan u feudalnom dobu bio u stalnom ratnom stanju, škole su testirale svoju viziju jujitsu-a na bojnom polju, gde je važno bilo preživeti. Trista godina mira koje su usledile nakon japanskih građanskih ratova dovele su do promene prirode ovih veština. Pod strogim Tokugawa borilačkim pravilima, borbe između samuraja  i ratovanja su se  proredila, jer je stupila na snagu zabrana nošenja kratkog i dugog mača koja je bila regulisana carskom uredbom. Tako da je goloruka borba  postala uobičajena. Početkom nestajanja samurajske klase jujutsu tehnike su morale biti prilagođene potrebama svakodnevnog života.

U to vreme većina  škola je prekinula insistiranje na ceremonijalnom i ritualnom držanju u korist praktičnijih prilaza golorukoj borbi. Krajem Tokugawa perioda, drevne japanske  borilačke  veštine (Bujutsu) koje su stvorene za ratničku klasu počele su da gube važnost pošto su načini borbe (Budo) stvoreni za obične ljude preuzele primat.  Budo nije bio samo zbir borilačkih tehnika, nego i duhovna disciplina, način života.

Tokom Meiji perioda restauracije 1868, prelaz iz Bujutsu-a u Budo je završen. Nekoliko grana borilačkih veština je promenilo naziv i orijentaciju u potpunosti. Kyujutsu  postaje Kyudo, iai-jutsu  postaje iaido, aiki-jutsu  postaje aikido, a jujutsu postaje Judo. Došlo je do prelaza sa ratničkih veština na principe svakodnevnog života, gde je duhovna strana veština više naglašena. Škole sada svoju tradiciju prenose na učenike u obliku formi, tehnika, filozofije i moralnog kodeksa. Od učenika se očekuje da budu potpuno osposobljeni za goloruku borbu, ali i da prate filozofiju osnivača škola.

 

Dr. Jigoro Kano , osnivač modernog  Judo-a, rođen je u gradu Mikage u okrugu Hyogo, 28. oktobra 1860. Shihan (veliki učitelj) Kano nikad nije smatrao borilačku veštinu kao način da se iskaže fizička superiornost. Kao pacifista , proučavao je borilačke veštine da bi našao način da živi u miru sa drugim ljudima. U svojoj mladosti Kano je izučavao jujutsu kod mnogo različitih učitelja. Sensei Teinosuke Yagi bio je njegov prvi učitelj. Ali sa 18 godina odlazi u školu Tenshin-shinyo kod Sensei-a Hachinosuke Fukude. Nakon diplomiranja na Tokijskom univerzitetu, izučava Kito stil kod Sensei-a Iikube. Do sredine svojih 20-ih godina, Shihan Kano uveden je u tajne tehnike obeju škola.

Kanova potraga za ujedinjujućim principom za tehnike koje je naučio, dovele su ga do prvog principa Judo-a – Seiryoku-Zenyo (maksimalna efikasnost mentalne i fizičke energije). Po njemu, samo tehnike koje čuvaju fizičku i mentalnu energiju treba da budu uvrštene u sistem. Treba  koristiti energiju protivnika da bi se on pobedio. Taj sistem je nazvao Judo. Da bi propagirao svoju veštinu Kano je osnovao Kodokan ( mesto  za traženje puta) u hramu Eishoji 1882.

Kano je svoj sistem izgradio na bazi tri glavne grupe tehnika: bacanja (Nage waza), parterne tehnike (Katame waza) i udarci (Atemi waza). Bacačke tehnike koje je uzeo iz škole Kito, bile su dalje podeljene na : tehnike u stojećem stavu (Tachi waza) ,  požrtvovane tehnike (Sutemi waza). Stojeće  tehnike su uključivale : ručne tehnike (Te waza), bočne tehnike (Koshi waza) i nožne tehnike (Ashi waza). Požrtvovane tehnike deli na tehnike unapred (Ma sutemi waza) i u stranu (Yoko sutemi waza).

Kanove tehnike na tlu i tehnike udaraca su izvedene iz  tehnika škole  Tenshin-shinyo. Borba na tlu je podeljena na zahvate držanja (Osaekomi waza), zahvate gušenja (Shime waza) i poluge na zglobovima. Kano je u početku svojim učenicima pokazivao samo tehnike držanja, dok je tajne  zahvata gušenja i poluga čuvao za one  učenike koji su dostigli viši nivo veštine. Od njih se takođe očekivalo da poznaju veštinu oživljavanja (Kappo), da bi se obuka odvijala u bezbednim i odgovornim uslovima.

Tehnike udaraca u judo-u uključivale su udarce rukama  (Ude ate) i udarce nogama (Ashi ate). Među tehnikama udaraca bile su uključene one koje koriste pesnice, laktove, koren dlana, prste , kolena i stopala kao udarne površine. Zbog svoje ubojitosti, samo majstori su izučavali Atemi wazu.

Judo se uči u dobro struktuiranom procesu. Tehnike u stojećem stavu su podeljene u pet grupa, od jednostavnijih ka složenijim (Gokyo no Waza). Tehnike na tlu   i tehnike udaraca takođe su podeljene u grupe. Grupe se uvode postepeno kako Judoka postaje uvežbaniji. Učenici su bili  podeljeni na mudansha (pojasevi u boji), koji su podeljeni u pet klasa (kyu), i yudansha (crni pojasevi) , koji su podeljeni u deset stepeni (dan). Rangovi su označavali različiti nivo veštine.

Da bi završio prelaz iz Jutsu (borilačke veštine) na Do (način života), Kano je dodao strogi  etički kodeks i filozofiju poštovanja svom novom sistemu. Od Kodokanovih instruktora i učenika se od početka očekivalo da budu izuzetni primeri dobrog karaktera i primernog vladanja. Bilo kakva borba izvan škole, javna demonstracija radi zarade, ili bilo kakvo ponašanje koje bi osramotilo školu moglo je dovesti do suspendovanja ili izbacivanja iz Kodokana.

Kanova krajnja briga za dobrobit pojedinca i društva se odražava u njegovim metodama podučavanja i u drugom  vodećem principu Judo-a. Kano je koristio četiri metode obuke u svojoj školi: randori (slobodna vežba svih Judo tehnika), kata (unapred određene forme ), ko ( njegovo sistematsko podučavanje) i mondo (period postavljanja pitanja i odgovaranja).

Debate između Kana i njegovih sledbenika dovodi ga do drugog principa Judo-a, Jita Kyoei (princip obostrane koristi i prosperiteta). Kano je verovao da će uporno vežbanje Judo-a dovesti do spoznaje da se ne može postići napredak na štetu drugog, da  u obostranom napretku  leži ključ za bilo koji napredak u ljudskom životu. Toliko je bio obuzet tim principom da je njegovo širenje, kroz vežbanje Judo-a,  smatrao svojom najvećom misijom u životu.

Najveći razvoj Judo-a desio se početkom novog veka. 1889.-e  Kano putuje u Evropu i Ameriku da bi promovisao svoju borilačku veštinu. Putovao je još osam puta na različite kontinente pre svoje smrti 4. maja 1938. na brodu, vraćajući se sa sastanka Svetskog olimpijskog komiteta.

Tehnički aspekt Judo-a dostigao je svoju zrelost 1900.-e osnivanjem Kodokan Yudanshakai (asocijacije nosilaca majstorskih  pojaseva).  24. jula 1905. osamnaest majstora, koji su predstavljali vodeće japanske Jujutsu škole,  sastali su se u Butokukai-u u Kyoto-u da bi se pridružili Kanovom sistemu. 1920.-e godine dolazi do revizije bacačkih tehnika , nazvanih Gokyo no Waza kojih sada ima 40 razvrstanih u pet grupa po osam tehnika.

Između 1912. i 1952., kada je osnovana  Svetska Judo federacija nekoliko japanskih eksperata emigriralo je u zapadne zemlje šireći Judo:  Sensei Gunji Koizumi, 7. dan, odlazi u Veliku Britaniju 1918. Mikinosuke Kawaishi, 7.dan, jedan od najvećih stručnjaka za Judo kate, odlazi u  Francusku 1922. Sumiyuki Kotani 8. dan, odlazi u Ameriku 1952. Što se Judo više širio po zapadnom svetu, sve je više poprimao odlike sporta. Popularnost Judo-a i njegovo uvrštenje u društvo olimpijskih sportova, dovelo je do sve većeg naglašavanja fizičkog i takmičarskog aspekta ove veštine .

Kosen Judo

Kosen Judo is a form of Judo adopted by the major high schools and technical schools during the Meiji Era (1868 – 1914). It emphasizes Ne-Waza (ground techniques) such as controls, joint locks and strangles. This is the style of Judo that was taught to the Gracies in Brazil, by Mitsuyo Maeda.

History

The roots of Kosen Judo lie in two schools of Jujutsu: The Fusen-Ryu Jujutsu and, not surprisingly, Jigoro Kano´s own ryu (school), which was named Judo and spread worldwide.

Ancient origins

Fusen-Ryu Jujutsu was founded by Takeda Motsuge, in the early 1800s. The ryu was based on his early Jujutsu teachings (by his late teens, he was already considered a Shihan). The most influential schools he had trained were: the Nanba Ippo (from Takahashi Inobei), Takenouchi, Sekiguchi, Yoshin, Shibukawa and Yagyu-Ryu. The dissolution of the Samurai class came about at the same time of the Fusen-Ryu founding and the banning of armed combat probably contributed heavily for its development and emphasis in unarmed combat techniques.

By the end of the 19th century, another school of Jujutsu was getting prominence beating several older schools in consecutive matches. This school was founded by Jigoro Kano and was called Kodokan Judo. Mataemon Tanabe, the then Fusen-Ryu master, challenged Kano school and his students won every match. Much to Kano´s surprise, they did not attempt throwing techniques, but rather went straight to the ground and applied Ne-Waza (ground techniques) submissions as arm-locks, leg-locks, pins and chokes. Kano, being very open-minded, was so fascinated by the Fusen-Ryu effectiveness, that he persuaded Tanabe to teach Kodokan students the concepts of his ryu´s strategy. Kano had consistently invited the heads of every Jujutsu ryu he encountered to incorporate their teachings into the Kodokan curriculum. The Ne-Waza component however became a major part of Judo influencing its development greatly. Among these early students were prominent to be Kodokan judokas by the likes of Yoshiaki Yamashita, Hirata Kanae, Tsunejiro Tomita, Sakujiro Yokoyama and Maeda – the latter being the one who eventually taught Judo to the Gracie family, which would later develop into Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (some people think Jiu-Jitsu is actually a misspelling of Jujutsu, but as both are ‘romanised’ versions of Japanese Kanji script, neither is strictly speaking ‘wrong’).

The birth of Kosen Judo

Jujutsu schools had earned a very bad reputation in the 19th century. The art of Jujutsu was not seen as a sport and its practitioners were all labelled trouble-makers. This troubled Kano, as he wanted his art to be mainly taught as a way of life and to be a fitness exercise (for both body and mind). To this end, he started promoting the educational side of his Jujutsu ryu by, first, changing its name to Judo. This, theoretically, demonstrated that Kano´s school departed from the Bujutsu tradition of warfare to a more person centered Budo tradition, where the role of the individual was the real focus.

Since Fusen-Ryu matches ended in a pin or submission, instead of serious injury and it avoided difficult throws, it was easily learned in the school setting. Kodokan Judo had formed great Ne-Waza experts. This, along with Kano´s willingness to promote Judo as a way of life and a form of physical education, greatly influenced the face of Judo in its early days and helped him promote it in Japanese schools. In 1914, Kano organized the All Japan High School Championships, at Kyoto Imperial University. This sportive style of competition was formally called Kosen.

An expansion of Kodokan Judo Ne-Waza

Newaza effectivess and ease of learning started to change the way Judo matches evolved. It was much too easy to train a bulky fighter in Ne-Waza and have him stop the most fit opponent from a rival school, so, soon, Kano saw Judo becoming a Ne-Waza only school. By 1925, so much emphasis was on Ne-Waza – due to its success in competition, that Kano introduced new rules, limiting the amount of time the judoka could stay on the ground. It was stipulated that techniques had to start from Tachi-Waza (standing techniques). If you pulled your opponent down more than three times, he was declared the winner. This rule continued into the 1940s, but was ignored by the Kosen schools, who continued their form of Ne-Waza competition.

Kosen Judo evolution

At the time of the rule change of 1925, Ne-Waza was extremely popular and well researched, particularly by the Kosen Judo students. Since Kosen Judo was an inter-school team contest only, there was the possibility to draw. It was only Ippon (win by pin, submission, or a perfect throw), or a draw. Ne-Waza training was very useful, because it is easier to get draws in Ne-Waza and faster to get a beginner trained for competition. By this time, turtle positions, double leg locks (closed-guard), half-guard and so on, were extensively researched by the Kosen masters (there is a major misconception that these techniques were developed by the Gracies, in Brazil).

Kosen Judo followed its own course and continued under the old rules, even to this day, in the Seven Universities Tournament. Kano was very careful not to obliterate Kosen Judo when he introduced the new rules. He did this for several reservations:

– there were relatively few doing Ne-Waza only.
– he wanted Ne-Waza specialists in Judo.
– he could not convince himself that doing only Ne-Waza was, in itself, bad.
– Kosen judokas did also Tachi-Waza, despite their emphasis in Ne-Waza.

This way, the rule changes were not enforced throughout the Judo world in Japan, allowing Judo to evolve, both standing and onto the ground. The new rules were devised as a mean to emphasize Tachi-Waza, while great care was taken not to make Ne-Waza unpopular.

The spirit of Kosen Judo
Kosen Judo followed the spirit of Bushido. Winning was the most important aspect, although, in Bushido, this means winning for the group, rather than the individual. They were the elite of the time. They never gave up, even when pinned or having their arms broken and succumbed to unconsciousness, rather than call maitta. World War II changed this, as Japan lost the war and the Kodokan was closed, eventualy to become a military academy. After many meetings, it was agreed that the Kodokan could re-open, only if it taught Judo in a pure democratic manner.

Kosen Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu

In 1904, Mitsuyo Maeda was sent to America to spread the word of Judo. By 1915, he finally arrived in Brazil and taught Judo Ne-Waza to Carlos Gracie. Helio Gracie learned the techniques from watching his brother Carlos and adapted them to his own slim and weak body. This way, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu can be regarded as a direct descendant from Judo Ne-Waza and, by extension, from Kodokan Judo as it was taught before World War II.

In recent days, due to Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu prominance in the media, a rivalry between Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu started to grow. Soon, this was regarded derogatory to both sports. In Brazil, practitioners of Jiu-Jitsu never took much attention to this rivalry, partly because they did not recognize ‘sport-judo’ as having any influence in their art, partly because they regarded old school Judo masters as very capable fighters (Helio Gracie´s account of Masahiko Kimura´s skills is just one evidence among many).

Currently, there is a big trend in Brazil toward bringing together Judo and Jiu-Jitsu schools. Brazilian Jiu-jitsu fighters went to Judo schools to develop their throwing techniques and judokas went to Jiu-Jitsu schools to develop their Ne-Waza skills. Much credit for this has to be given to the specialized press, which started to write accurate articles regarding the origins of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu in Judo, promoting the aproximation of both arts.

Many scholars regard Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Kosen Judo to be more closed related to the Kodokan Judo before World War II, than current ‘international judo’ as it is presented by the Kodokan itself, today.

 

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